View credits, reviews, tracks and shop for the 1953 Vinyl release of Chopin Waltzes on Discogs. 64, No. It is often hailed nowadays as hugely inflected, but such descriptions seem valid only in comparison to more modern "objective" versions rather than to his predecessors. 64, No. Rather, Chopin's art blossomed in private, as he gave recitals before the aristocratic and cultural elite. Sand wrote that "only at the piano does he really open his heart." He explained: "Concerts are never real music. 64, No. 34/1: Grade 8+ Op. 64 No. 2 in C-Sharp Minor. Perhaps the ultimate tribute to his distinction and proof of his influence is the prominence his music holds in the core repertoire of nearly every great pianist and its inclusion in the programs of so many recitals. Perhaps the most famous Chopin player of his time was Arthur Rubinstein (1887 – 1983), whose life was not only long but filled with "life and love and art and all the other wonderful things in the world," as he once put it. Yet, unlike Liszt, Thalberg and the other keyboard giants of his time whose fame derived from constant exposure, Chopin is known to have given only 30 public concerts in his entire life (and in many of those he was but one of several participating artists). Chopin dedicated this Waltz to Madame Nathaniel de Rothschild. (None of the other sides in his first session, which included the waltz, exceeded 2¾ minutes, which may have been the limit of the equipment; when encountering unusually fast tempi in discs of this vintage, one is tempted to suspect mechanical necessity, rather than purely artistic reasons.) Chopin Waltz Op.64 No.2 Paul Barton, FEURICH piano - YouTube Every sound goes straight to the heart. Thus Hallé: "Nobody has ever been able to reproduce his works as they sounded under his magical fingers." Frédéric Chopin : Waltz no.3 in a minor, op.34 no.2 écoute gratuite et téléchargement JW Pepper ® is your sheet music store for band, orchestra and choral music, piano sheet music, worship songs, songbooks and more. By Frédéric Chopin / arr. Your interpretation is stunning. 34/2), 1911 (Op. Waltz in … 64/1. Nobody [else] understands them.". Report. Advertisement. Of other Polish pianists the most famous by far was Ignace Jan Paderewski (1869 – 1941). 18 (in E-flat major, written in 1831), In light of all the disparaging 19th century twaddle about Chopin being effeminate. 2 in C# Minor - Chopin (from Waltz Op. 64, No. Another enthralling take by a fellow artist is Alfred Cortot's In Search of Chopin (tr: Cyril and Rene Clarke, Abelard Press, 1952), with separate chapters devoted to Chopin's portraits, hands, teaching, concerts, correspondence and personality, all filtered through the lens of one of his foremost advocates and interpreters. 2 by Frédéric Chopin for free, and see the artwork, lyrics and similar artists. 64 No. Frédéric Chopin; Usage on en.wikipedia.org Waltz in C-sharp minor, Op. Here's how Eleanor Bailie classifies the waltzes according to difficulty in Chopin: A Graded Practical Guide (a very worthwhile investment for any aficionado of Chopin's music, and especially valuable to the self-teaching amateur): Op. Liszt likened Chopin's art to drawings with a delicate pencil rather than with a scene-painter's brush, and hailed his expansion of the resources of art by concentrating his inspiration in a lesser space – a particular compliment from a fellow composer who sought to wrest from the piano a spectrum of splashy orchestral effects. 64 waltzes display Chopin at the height of his powers, transforming the most commonplace of all the forms in which he composed into remarkable personal statements even while respecting and preserving their fundamental essence. nocturne op. Throughout much of his adult life, Chopin suffered from tuberculosis and related ailments that sapped his strength. University of Georgia Theses and Dissertations, http://purl.galileo.usg.edu/uga_etd/moon_youngmi_201505_dma. 64 No. Listen to Chopin Waltz in C-Sharp Minor, Op. Yet, taken on their own terms, Pachmann's rolls are astoundingly alive with a sense of invention that recalls the composer's own delight in improvisation. As in nearly all his recordings, Cortot's Waltzes are full of wrong notes, some at climactic moments. 3 in A-flat Major) and Opus 69 (no. Compared to Grünfeld's record, Koczalski's 34/2 is considerably more wayward in constantly altering the basic pulse and adding embellishments not indicated in the score. Great Pianists of the 20th Century - Arthur Rubinstein, Vol.1, Chopin Arthur Rubinstein 7 in c sharp minor, Op. Waltz In C# Minor Op. Chopin's favorite piano was a Pleyel, having an easy touch and veiled sonority, which he often brought with him to a recital. He is widely regarded as the g. Free sheet music for amateur musicians and learners! A Chopin specialist, he began recording in the mid-1920s and in 1928 cut two waltzes (Opp. 64 No. 2 (Chopin) Amies-ennemies; Waltz with Bashir; Usage on fr.wikipedia.org Valse, opus 64 nº 2; Valse avec Bachir; Usage on ja.wikipedia.org ワルツ第7番 (ショパン) Usage on pl.wikipedia.org Lista dzieł Fryderyka Chopina; Walc z Baszirem; Walce op. Tonebridge. 1). The third was overall delicacy, in which nuance rose to a level of subtle power, unobscured by pronounced dynamic outbursts. Yet in 1816, Thomas Wilson assured the public that the waltz was "a promoter of vigorous health and hilarity of spirits." The source that I found most helpful was Jean-Jacques Eigeldinger's Chopin – Pianist and Teacher, as Seen By His Pupils (Cambridge University Press, 1986), which analyzes reliable accounts (ie: sans Sands) to examine Chopin's performing style, technique and specific works, even comparing fingerings and accent markings on surviving pupils' scores. The instrument Chopin played never existed except beneath Chopin's fingers." 2". Download and print in PDF or MIDI free sheet music for Trois Valses, Op. Perhaps to compensate for the horror of reality through idealizing, she caresses the tender sections of these waltzes with an astounding degree of suppleness and care. Koczalski was Polish and a pupil of Karl Mikuli, Chopin's foremost student who devoted his life to teaching his master's approach to his works. Simplified Masterwork Solo. 64/2 and sustains the trill-like opening figure and adds an extra cadence to the end of Op. Arthur Rubinstein - Chopin Waltz Op. 64/2) and 1912 (Post. Listen to Chopin: Waltz No.7 In C Sharp Minor, Op.64 No.2 by Peter Jablonski, 380 Shazams. Relax Music 9,002 watching 1, nor the melancholy of Op. 64, No. Antoine Marmontel: He "envelopes melodic phrases and ingenious arabesques in a half-tint which has something of both dream and reality." 18. To play Chopin … with rhythmic rigidity and pious respect for the indicated rate of movement would be … intolerably monotonous. Listening to him, one feels suspended somewhere between heaven and earth." Robert Ståhlbrand cites a dozen further Chopin waltzes, including six catalogued by Chopin's sister but lost when her house burned down in 1863. Hope you enjoy my performance of Chopin's Waltz in C Sharp Minor (Op. Advertisement. At barely 2¾ minutes (compared to a typical 4½) , it's wonderfully fleet and exhilarating without seeming at all forced. 64 No. Chopin, F. (1880) Waltz, Op. 64/1 B.164/1 Countess Delfina Potocka: Valse du petit chien is the title Chopin gave this waltz, which is popularly known as Minute Waltz: 7 C-sharp minor: 1846-1847 XI 1847 Op. The second waltz is … 64, No. Loring Thad. "His originality is so compelling that perhaps no other composer can be so quickly identified.". In any event, it seems clear that the dance was far removed from the staid formality we associate with most socially-approved dances of the time, and its appeal may well have sprung from its call to liberation and vitality. Chopin - Waltz Op. And in a 1964 Moscow recital – one of his very few live recordings – he plays the Opp. Stream songs including "Waltz in C-Sharp Minor, Op. 2 / Waltzes / Ballade No. 1 in A-flat Major and no. Some other sets that merit particular interest: Of the dozens of books written about Chopin, most give short shrift to the waltzes, but perhaps that's a tribute to their degree of accessibility that requires no elucidation. 64 by Chopin, Frédéric arranged by ELDT for Piano (Solo) Chopin Waltz Op. Fontana recalled that Chopin would improvise for hours with "an inexhaustible torrent of precious materials out of which coalesced his finished compositions." Written in 1847, Chopin dedicated this Waltz to Madame Nathaniel de Rothschild. Some of the best ones, like his op. 3 & 4 1994 Featured On. Chopin - Waltz Op. My description of the development of the waltz is primarily from the articles by Percy Scholes in the Oxford Companion to Music (Oxford University, 1959) and Mosco Carner in Grove's Dictionary of Music and Musicians (1951 edition). VIDEO. He urged his pupils to study singers and to sing themselves, insisting that music be phrased as declamation, conveyed in long breaths to avoid fragmentation yet with natural accents, including crescendos on ascending melodies and decrescendos on falling phrases. 64 No. 64 No. Despite the brevity of his life, Chopin's biography did not seem to influence his compositions, whose emotional content are hard to tag to specific events, including his curious nine-year relationship with George Sand; indeed some of his brightest music emerged from his seemingly most depressing periods. It is both curious and disappointing that in recording the Waltzes more pianists haven't followed Lipatti's personal and creative lead. One of the first Chopin pieces I teach my students is his Waltz in A minor, since it’s very well-known, it’s very approachable, and has some fancy show-off parts too.. The first was legato, described by Mikuli as tones melting into each other. Delivering music since 1876. Indeed, Robert Schumann quipped that if Chopin's waltzes were to be danced, at least half the ladies should be countesses. Chopin prized spontaneity, forbidding his students to practice more than three hours per day and ordering them not only to dispense with the score but to not even look at the keyboard and even to play in the dark, as only then would one's hearing function with all of its sensitivity. ... Chopin - Waltz Op.64 No 2 Guitar Sheet Music. Admittedly, the three Chopin waltzes Grünfeld recorded are among the least emotionally complex of the series, but their refined elegance and gentle allure seem to evoke the composer's own regal bearing and mild demeanor. 64/2, he constantly distends pick-up notes to shift the tempo into an amalgam of triple and duple time, yet so smoothly as to create its own compelling, if quirky, internal logic. Hector Berlioz: "His playing is shot through with a thousand nuances of movement of which he alone holds the secret, impossible to convey by instructions. 1 - Chopin) Etzy~ added Waltz Op. The remaining six waltzes that Chopin deemed unworthy of publication tend to wrap up the series with slackening inspiration. 2 - Chopin. The Waltz in C ♯ minor is a piano waltz composed by Frédéric Chopin in 1847, the second work of his opus 64 and the companion to the "Minute Waltz" (Op. Author Shreddin 4 Life [a] 550. While purists could condemn her for letting the musical continuity lapse, her approach is truly unique and highly effective. Label: RCA Victor Red Seal - LM 1082 • Format: Vinyl LP, Album • Country: US • Genre: Classical • Style: Romantic ... Op. Indeed, his two complete sets of the waltzes (1953 and 1963, both RCA), each recorded in a single day, breathe with an air of relaxed elegance that emphasizes the aristocratic life to which Chopin catered while attenuating the undercurrent of angst, leaving instead a haunting wistfulness. The first and last published sets form stylistic bookends for the Chopin waltzes. Waltz Op 64 No 2 Intro guitar pro tab by Frédéric Chopin. 2 Deux Valses (“Two Waltzes”) was composed by Frédéric Chopin for solo piano in the year 1829 at the age of 19, although published posthumously in 1852. More important, should the legion of interpreters who play his music emulate his style or assume that his music contains bolder ideas than the composer himself could realize in his own performances? Commentators have said that Chopin single-handedly transcended the essentially percussive nature of the piano. Details. Smoothing the deliberate, uniform hopping and stamping of the gawky Ländler into a graceful, rotating, gliding, stylized form, the waltz took Vienna by storm in the 1770s to mixed reaction. 1 in D-flat Major, no. 2012-08-24T23:23:01Z Buy Chopin: Waltz in C#minor op.64 no.2. Users who like Chopin: Waltz in C#minor op.64 no.2; Users who reposted Chopin: Waltz in C#minor op.64 no.2; Playlists containing Chopin: Waltz in C#minor op.64 no.2 But it was Chopin who transformed the waltz into something altogether sublime, adding refinement, nuance and reflection more suited to aristocracy than the masses and for private sittings than the ballroom. Chopin composed the waltz in 1847 and had it published by Breitkopf & Härtel in Leipzig the same year, as the first of the Trois Valses, Op. But perhaps it was his lack of formal keyboard training that freed him to disregard convention and to find and explore new techniques that directly served his expressive proclivity. Cortot was also one of the most important teachers of his time, and the next important complete set was by one of his students, Dinu Lipatti (1917 – 1950). Koczalski also indulges in "breaking the hands," by which the left-hand rhythmic downbeat tends to precede the right-hand melodic note written on the same beat. 64/2 is delicately nuanced and a 1928 disc of the Op. 50+ videos Play all Mix - Chopin Waltz Op.64 No.2 YouTube Morning Coffee JAZZ - Relaxing Instrumental Bossa Nova JAZZ Playlist - Have a Nice Day! In his comprehensive Music in Western Civilization Paul Henry Lang, hardly effusive with praise, hails Chopin as "one of the most original and remarkable geniuses in musical history. Details. Download and buy printable sheet music online at JW Pepper. Instruments: keyboards. [A] sense of the unexpected is one of its principal beauties." 2 in C Sharp Minor. 1). Chopin: Waltz No.7 In C Sharp Minor, Op.64 No.2 - Tempo Giusto - Tamas Vasary | Nghe nhạc hay online mới nhất chất lượng cao Description: Chopin waltz op 64 no 2 in c sharp minor. His compositions included ballades, études, impromptus, mazurkas, nocturnes, polonaises, preludes, scherzos and waltzes. 2, but rather a musical item in which the more pure expression of perfect structural and … Yet they afford a unique opportunity to consider the wonder of his art. 18: Grade 8 Op. Free Piano Sheet Music - Waltz In C# Minor Op. 18 waltz, arguably the most pedestrian of the official canon, flows the sections together naturally yet with just enough distinctive character to sustain interest while suggesting an integrated composition rather than a succession of episodes. Chopin's music refuses submission to the metronome as if it were the yoke of some hated government; this music bids us hear, know and realize that our nation, our land, the whole of Poland, feels and moves in tempo rubato." [Notated Music] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/sm1880.20242/. 2 - Single by Joohyun Park on Apple Music. 64 are far simpler, yet more affecting. Grünfeld was also known as a superb mimic of others' styles and, perhaps ironically, his three Chopin waltzes (as well as two mazurkas and a nocturne), with their generally steady (but by no means rigid) left-hand rhythm and subtly free right-hand phrasing, seem to exemplify the descriptions of Chopin's own notions of rubato far more than Pugno's disc. 69, No. 18 and 34/2) for Polydor. Huneker cautioned: "Without the skeleton, a musical composition is flaccid, shapeless, weak and without character." LIKE . Tuning: E A D G B E. File format: gp5. (Equally fascinating are Koczalski's two vastly different recordings of the Op 9/2 Nocturne, which evoke the composer's own practice of playing his works spontaneously on each occasion.). The vast majority of integral recordings proceed in the order of publication, which, although it has become a familiar sequence, neither strictly comports with the chronology of composition nor makes much musical sense. If it is still a waltz for the body it is for a soulful and solitary one that moves with a pathetic little skip between the sighing parallel sixths of its main theme and then twists away in a nostalgic pirouette. pioneering recordings of individual waltzes, Op. Piano Sheet. Follow. There is no better example than one of his very last works, the Waltz in C sharp minor Op 64 No 2. Beyond that, his waltzes really aren’t easy. (At Besançon, though, he ran out of energy and could not play the latter, substituting a Bach chorale as the final summation of his artistic life.) (B.56) Frédéric Chopin - Waltz No.15 in E-major, Op.Posht. 【钢琴】多少人是因为这首曲子入坑古典音乐?(极高音质)肖邦:幻想即兴曲(Impromptu No. 2 - 1 Page Version (pdf) Scholars agree that the waltz is derived from the German Ländler, whose roots lie in a lascivious folk dance. Even when stripped of the vastly expanded material added three decades later by Princess Carolyne von Sayn-Wittgenstein, who used the nominal subject as a pretext for asserting and expounding upon her Polish nationalism, it generally dwells on thinly researched reflections on society and, in Waters' words, is more a testimonial than a biography. Posted by 23 days ago. 34/2: Grade 6 Op. The most promising, Karl Filtsch, died at age 15. Information from its description page there is shown below. (An especially bizarre curiosity is a riotous take of a Chopin Étude through which he babbles incessantly and after flubbing the ending protests: "Godowsky [his arch-rival] was the author!") Yet, it's clearly impressive to hear not just a few isolated pieces but the entire cycle played in the style of earlier interpreters. Perhaps the closest we can ever hope to come to the genuine Chopin playing style lies in the recordings of Raoul Koczalski (1885 – 1948). The purpose of this project is to provide a pedagogical analysis of Chopin Waltzes, Opus 64 (no. There was a problem, though – as Bryce Morrison gently noted: "From time to time his heart rather than his fingers are in the right place." It seems to descend from heaven – so pure and spiritual. SHARE. Watch the video for Waltz No. Mathias: "Nothing remotely resembling his playing has ever been heard since. ! Yet there was one more facet of crucial significance in Chopin's constitution – his health. 34 no. 64 No. Cheriemietieff: "It is a desecration to play his compositions. Commercial use allowed. 2 - Chopin. 2". 2 (pdf) Waltz In C# Minor Op. His Op. Also valuable were James Huneker's Chopin – The Man and His Music (Scribner, 1900), a trained pianist's impressionistic labor of love, and the information on Chopin's personal style in Reginald Gray's Famous Pianists and Their Technique (Robert B. Luce, Inc., 1974). New videos every Monday and Thursday! Chopin had few notable pupils. The second was rubato, a special type of rhythmic freedom in which the left (bass) hand kept strict time while the right (melodic) hand played more intuitively. (B.44) Frédéric Chopin - Grande Valse Brillante Op.18 in E-flat Frédéric Chopin - Waltz Op.69 no.1 / Waltz L'adieu Frédéric Chopin - Waltz in B minor, Op. Brumble added Chopin - Waltz Op. 2 in C-sharp Minor, and no. 2. Thus, having absorbed Chopin through Mikuli, he remained relatively immune from outside influences. The main theme is in the key of B minor and is marked with an overall tempo of Moderato.. 64 No 2. 2 in C Sharp Minor. Music for youtube videos or any other project. Cortot was deeply devoted to the cause of Chopin and to disseminating his music on record – his writings describe individual pieces in terms of specific and deeply personal narratives, and by the time he recorded the Waltzes he had already issued not only a complete set of the Chopin Études but two full versions of the complete Préludes and Ballades. While most of his other morsels are free-form and deeply personal in conception, the waltzes dwell within prescribed dance forms and their social function. 78_waltz-in-c-sharp-minor-op-64-no-2_ignace-jan-paderewski-chopin_gbia7004441b Local_id 0 Location India Scanner Internet Archive Python library 1.9.4 Scanningcenter George Blood, L.P. Of all the legions of Chopin interpreters on record, Lipatti perhaps could identify the closest with the composer – for years before his own vastly premature death at age 33, his strength was sapped by leukemia. In the process, he reinvented the art of the piano. Last edit on Feb 18, 2014. For the entire 19th century and much of the 20th the piano was the most popular of all instruments – although lacking others' portability, no respectable home lacked one. The waltzes are rarely found on lists of his greatest works or of performers' favorites. Free Piano Sheet Music - Waltz In C# Minor Op. His approach exemplifies the comments of many contemporaries who chided Chopin for his extreme rhythmic freedom; thus, Berlioz had claimed that Chopin could not play in time and pushed rhythmic independence much too far, while Hallé recalled that Chopin would hold the first note of each bar so long that his mazurkas, written in ¾ time, sounded as if they were phrased in 4/4 – hardly the first time that theoretical writing is trumped and enlivened by the experience of performance. Piano sheet music for op.64 no.2, composed by Chopin for piano. That, in turn, raises an intriguing but unanswerable question – did Chopin play with frailty because he chose to or because he had to? 34/1 sounds finicky and affected, a 1917 Op. Watch the video for Waltz in C Sharp Minor, Op. Cortot's 78s finessed the issue by presenting each waltz on a separate side (except for four short ones that were paired, presumably for technical rather than esthetic reasons). Have you played this piece? At his death, Chopin left a dozen pages intended as a rough draft of a treatise which Sand claimed was intended to cover not only piano playing but an overall theory of music, and which surely would have been both fascinating and illuminating. ® These waltzes exist in several extant versions, so this study will be useful in informing teachers of the different editions available and explaining the differences between them. 64, No. (HX.153603). Chopin’s Waltzes. Waltz Op. De Pachmann did not cut any of the waltzes on disc, but he did perform two in 1906 in the Welte process, a sophisticated piano roll mechanism that replaced punched holes with magnetic markings to reflect not only the notes but their duration and force (along with the pedals), thus replicating a pianist's touch and, when reproduced on a concert grand, adding considerable nuance to the boring (and false) uniformity of the standard system. 2 in C-sharp Minor, and no. Waltz In C# Minor Op. Chopin dedicated this Waltz to Madame Nathaniel de Rothschild. Grande valse; sometimes called the 2/4 waltz since the main melody sounds as if in 2/4 time against a 3/4 bass. Second was his reverence for singing. 3:51. Brumble moved Chopin - Waltz Op. Yet, he clearly was influenced by his Polish heritage, which accounted for much of the searching harmonies and quirky dance rhythms of his work. 14,403 views, added to favorites 104 times. When played in sequence with the familiar 14, all five are a letdown. 4 in C-sharp minor, Op.66) Yet, taken on its own terms, it presents a fine portrait of the man and his art as seen through the eyes of a contemporary peer. Among his very first records are the Opp. 64, No. 64, No. Print and Download Waltz Opus 64 No. This joy and contentment informed his music and led in part to his compulsion to defend his temperate and judicious approach to Chopin. Frederic Chopin - Waltz Op.64 No.2 (C# minor) Piano Tutorial "Waltz in C-sharp minor" is the 2nd piece of Frederic Chopin's Opus 64, and the companion to the Minute Waltz (No.1). Lipatti, though, took the opportunity to perform and record the waltzes in a more pleasing order, with a more logical flow of mood and key, so as to culminate with the two most brilliant pieces (Opp. 1). The three waltzes of Op. Fortunately, Chopin's supreme and enduring popularity with both artists and audiences has bequeathed us a bounty of recordings stretching back to the dawn of the 78. LIKE . The only known photograph of Chopin, taken in his final year, shows his deterioration and pain all too well. #Rousseau #Piano #PianoCover Emile Galliard recalled that: "upon finishing a piece, Chopin would often stay sitting at the keyboard in silence, pursuing a dream of his own. Tranposable music notes for Easy Piano sheet music by Frederic Chopin Frederic Chopin: Hal Leonard - Digital Sheet Music at Sheet Music Plus. Waltz No.2 Op.64 No.2 Frédéric Chopin. Even so, their vitality and character burst through the limitations of the technology. Although they are remarkably similar, the poignant circumstances of the recital lend it a special aura of transcendancy, as Lipatti distilled into this final public appearance the summation of all that he felt as an artist, infused with an intensely human struggle of the spirit to overcome his physical frailty. 3 / Nocturnes on Discogs. MP3 • • • Annotate this sheet music. 64, No. 64 No. He further notes that waltz steps are not even used in the choreography of Les Sylphides, a ballet set to orchestrations of Chopin music featuring three of his waltzes that has been described (in the notes to the Classical Music for People Who Hate Classical Music LP) as: "a moonlit vision of ballerinas who dance delicately in filmy half-length skirts, with garlands in their hair and little wings on their backs.". 64 No. 0:00 Waltz Op.18 in E-flat major 5:27 Waltz Op.34 No.1 in A-flat major 10:27 Waltz Op.34 No.2 in A minor 15:29 Waltz Op.34 No.3 in F major 17:39 Waltz Op.42 in A-flat major 21:05 Waltz Op.64 No… The purpose of this project is to provide a pedagogical analysis of Chopin Waltzes, Opus 64 (no. 2 in B Minor). Vladimir de Pachmann (1848 – 1933) not only was hailed as the greatest Chopin player of his time, but also claims the distinction of being the only pianist to have made Chopin records who was born during the composer's life (although they overlapped only barely). Size 10.0 Source 78 User_cleaned Sean Gaston User_metadataentered Sean Gaston … e minor). 64, No. It offers neither the whirling glee of Op. 64 No. SHARE. 70/1 and 70/3) recorded in 1946 by his student Maryla Jonas (1911 – 1959). 42: Grade 8+ Op. De Pachmann's waltzes display not only the sheer beauty of tone for which he strove, but also his penchant to distort and over-refine his phrasing. 2» by Frédéric Chopin. But with the advent of the LP, the order of the waltzes became significant, as all 14 would be split onto only two sides, and thus present a continuous program in a fixed progression. Indeed, he stood apart from any musical movement, largely shunning the music of his contemporaries and citing Bach, Mozart and Bellini as his favorite predecessors.